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Giulio Romano (Rome 1499-1546 Mantua)

North Italian Illuminated Manuscript / Italian School, 16th and early 17th-Century Drawings
Michelangelo Buonarotti (After) / Raphael / Parmigianino / Marcantonio Raimondi
Giulio Romano / Perino del Vaga / Titian (after) / Andrea Schiavone / Tintoretto / Veronese / Federico Zuccaro
Jacopo Palma il Giovane / Cherubino Alberti / Luca Cambiaso / Annibale Carracci

Italian School, 17th-Century Drawings / Drawings2 / Odoardo Fialetti / Simone Cantarini / Domenichino
Francesco Albani / Guercino / Pier Francesco Mola

Italian School Printmakers, 15th-17th Centuries: Venetian School, c. 1500 / Raphael School / Giovanni Jacopo Caraglio
Marcantonio Raimondi / The Master of the Die / Anea Vico / Agostino Veneziano / Nicholas Beatrizet
Michelangelo Buonarotti (After) / Giulio Bonasone / Giovanni Battista Franco /Girolamo Fagiuoli / Cherubino Alberti
Titian (after) / Tintoretto (after) / Parmigianino / Giorgio Ghisi / Diana Scultori / Annibale Carracci / Ludovico Carracci
Agostino Carracci / Simone Cantarini / Elisabetta Sirani / Gerolamo Scarsello

Netherlandish School 15th-17th-Century Drawings / Flemish School, 17th-Century
Bernaert van Orley / Lucas van Leyden / Maarten de Vos / Jan Baptiste de Wael / Abraham Bloemaert
Peter Paul Rubens / Philipp Sadeler / Nicolaes Maes / Rembrandt School

Netherlandish Printmakers 16th-17th Centuries: Lucas van Leyden, Maarten van Heemskerck, Cornelis Cort
Philips Galle, Abraham de Bruyn, Hans (Jan) Collaert, Adriaen Collaert, Karel de Mallery, Theodore Galle, Hendrik Goltzius
Julius Goltzius, Jacob Matham, Jan Sanraedam, Maarten de Vos, Jan Sadeler, Aegidius Sadeler, Raphael Sadeler
Crispin de Passe, Magdalena de Passe, Wierix Brothers, Rembrandt, Rembrandt School, Jan Lievens, Jan Joris van Vliet,
Ferdinand Bol, Govert Flinck

German Drawings: Hans Sebald Beham / Virgil Solis / Hans von Aachen / Johann Heinrich Roos
German 16th century printmakers: Heinrich Aldegrever, Jost Amman, Hans Sebald Beham, Hans Brosamer, Hans Burgkmair,
Lucas Cranach, Albrecht Durer, Albrecht Durer (After), Hans Holbein (After), Hopfer Brothers, Georg Pencz, Hans Schäufelein,
Virgil Solis, Wolfgang Stuber.

18th-Century Drawings / 19th-Century Drawings / 20th-Century Drawings
In The Winter's Tale, Shakespeare, for the first and only time in his career, praises a sixteenth-century artist by name, referring to "that rare Italian master, Julio Romano, who, had he eternity and could put breath into his work, would beguile Nature of her custom, so perfectly he is her ape" (V.ii.91-96), as the creator of a sculpture of the dead Hermione so lifelike that anyone seeing it would expect it to respond to speech with speech: "He so near to Hermione hath done Hermione that they say one would speak to her and stand in hope of an answer" (V.ii.97-99). Giulio Romano, singled out for Shakespeare's priase, was Raphael's chief assistant and succeeded him as the head of Raphael's studio after hisdeath. After the Sack of of Rome, Giulio (assisted by Giovanni Francesco Penni and Perino del Vaga) completed Raphael's unfinished projects, including the Sala di Costantino in the Vatican, and then went to Mantua, where he spent most of the the rest of his life working on projects for the Duke of Mantua, Federico II Gonzaga, most notably the Palazzo del Té, for which he was architect, designer of its program of paintings, and chief painter.

Giorgio Vasari, whose prime loyalty was always to Michelangelo, included a Life of Giulio in Part Three of The Lives of the Artists, published in 1568. In it, he began by praising Giulio as the most accomplished of all of Raphael's pupils: "Among the countless pupils of Raphael, who mostly became excellent, no one imitated him more closely in style, invention, design, and coloring than Giulio Romano, nor was anyone of them more profound, spiritual, fanciful, various, prolific, and universal; he was also an agreeable companion, jovial, affable, gracious and abounding in excellent qualities, so that Raphael loved him as if he had been his son, and employed him on all his principal works" (3: 97). Although Raphael employed him as his chief assistant and had him paint many of the scenes in the Sistine Chapel and the Loggia, Vasari declared that Giulio's drawings were "probably more graceful than . . . [his] painting, for he was always happier expressing his ideas in drawing than in painting, obtaining more vivacity, vigor and expression, possibly because a design is made in an hour in heat, while a painting takes months and years" (3: 99-100). For Vasari, Giulio creates "such various fancies that the mind is bewildered" (3: 101), which is both delightful and a necessary thing since wonder is one of the goals of the artist. Vasari, who visited Giulio ("about the time that Michelangelo uncovered his Last Judgment" [i.e. Fall, 1541, 3: 110]) and admired him, offers him generous praise: "Everything in art came so easy to him, especially design, that no one is known to have done more than he. He was universal and could discuss everything, but especially medals, upon which he spent much time and money" (3: 110). Giulio's interest in medals is of some interest because they typically portrayed a portrait on one face and an allegory of some quality of the subject on the other. According to Janet Cox-Rearick's essay in Giulio Romano Master Designer, Giulio often employed the red chalk that was a specialty of Raphael's either alone or in combination with black chalk, but "once established in Mantua he renounced black chalk and used it only for preliminary indications of compositions to be elaborated in pen. His preferred medium was pen and ink, sometimes combined with brush and wash and often, in the later stages of the preparatory process, heightened in white lead to restore tonal contrasts. The dark brown ink of most of these drawings has faded over time to a soft sepia tone" (19).

Selected Bibliography: Franco Ambrosio, Giulio Romano, trans. Richard Sadlier (Mondadordi, 1991); Thomas P. Campbell, Tapestry in the Renaissance: Art and Magnificence (NY: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2002); Thomas P. Campbell, ed. Tapestry in the Baroque: Threads of Splendor (NY: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2007); Janet Cox-Rearick et al, Giulio Romano Master Designer: An Exhibition of Drawings in Celebration of the 500th Anniversary of His Birth (New York: Leubsdorf Art Gallery/Hunter College, 1999); Ernst H. Gombrich et al. Giulio Romano (Milan: Electa, 1989); Frederick Hartt, Giulio Romano (New Haven, Yale UP, 1958); Stefania Massari, ed. Giulio Romano pinxit et delineavit. Opere grafiche autografe di collaborazione e bottega. Mostra di Mantova, Palazzo Té. Collaborazione con l’Istituto Nazionale per la Grafica; Paola Coccia, Maxinella Monarca e Rita Parma Baudille (Roma, 1993); Phillip Pouncey and. J. A. Gere, Italian drawings in the department of prints and drawings in the British Museum. Raphael and his circle: Giulio Romano, G.F. Penni, Perino del Vaga, Giovanni da Udine, Tommaso Vincidor, Polidoro da Caravaggio, Baldassare Peruzzi, Timoteo Viti and Girolamo Genga. Also Sebastiano del Piombo (London, The Trustees of the British Museum, 1962); Sotheby & Co., The Ellesmere Collection Part 2 Drawings By Giulio Romano (London: Sotheby & Co., 1972); Manfredo Tafuri, et al. Giulio Romano (Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1998); Giorgio Vasari, Lives of the Painters, Sculptors and Architects, 4 volumes (London: Everyman's Library, 1963; the Life of Giulio is in vol. 3, 97-112).
Giulio Romano (Giulio Pippi; Rome 1499-1546 Mantua), attributed, Scipio rewarding his soldiers. Drawing in pen and brown ink with brown wash. Although he may have begun working on the story of Scipio Africanus as early as 1522-23, at some time prior to 1532 Giulio accepted a commission to design a set of tapestries for François I, King of France on the theme of the Deeds and Triumphs of Scipio. A 22-piece set was made in Brussels between 1532 and 1535 and delivered in parts as they were finished during those years. Another payment was made to Giulio's pupil Fransesco Primaticcio, who had arrived at Fontainebleau shortly after 22 March 1532 to travel from France to Flanders, "where he had to carry a modello of the story of Scipio the African, intended for a tapestry that the king was having made in Brussels, and to bring back the cartoon of the said story" (cited in Campbell 343). Campbell's figure 150 shows a preparatory drawing by Giulio that the Musée du Louvre dates c. 1522-1523(?) and that shows The Capture of Carthage in pen and brown ink with brown wash similar to ours. Aside from several wormholes lower right corner, center-left bottom, in the thigh of the left-most soldier, in the base of Scipio's throne, and top right and center right, all repaired and all backed with tinted paper, the sheet is in very good condition. For Diana Scultori's engraving of The Clemency of Scipio after Giulio Romano, click here. Image size: 276x184mm. Price: $27,500.
Giulio Romano (Giulio Pippi; Rome 1499-1546 Mantua), attributed, Justice. Black and red chalk on laid paper mounted on support sheet. Abrasions top left, bottom center-right, and right side not affecting image; tear extending from top margin down to Justice's hair. Attributed to Giulio on the verso. Justice has her right hand on an ostrich and holds a scale in her left towards which she directs her attention. As Millard Meiss argued (in “Ovem Struthionis,” Studies in Art and Literature for Belle da Costa Greene, ed. Dorothy Miner [Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1954], 95), in explaining of the significance of the large egg (which he identifies as an ostrich egg) hanging over the enthroned Virgin and Child in Mantegna’s late fifteenth-century San Zeno altarpiece: “The great egg was . . . a common symbol of the immaculate conception of Christ. Both the Physiologus and the Bestiaries tell us that the eggs of the ostrich, abandoned by the mother bird, were hatched by the sun. This remarkable incubation was compared to the virgin birth of Christ. In the [translated] words of Albertus Magnus. . . . ‘If the sun can hatch the eggs of the ostrich, why cannot a virgin conceive with the aid of the true sun?’ ” Symbolically Giulio is juxtaposing an image of strict justice (the scales) with an image of mercy (Christ implied in the ostrich).

Vasari reminds us that after the death of Pope Adrian, Giulio and his assistant threw down several walls in the Sala di Constantine that had been prepared for oil paintings, but left two decorations they had previously completed as decorations to accompany their portraits of the popes in the niches of the room, "Justice and another virtue." Since most of Giulio's later drawings were executed in pen and ink with washes while his early drawings were done in red and black chalk, our drawing would seem to relate to the "Justice" Vasari mentions in his life of Giulio in Part 3 of the Lives. We received an email in 2005 from someone who had found our drawing on our website and wanted to share some information. Christie's NY held a Sale of Old Master Paintings at Rockefeller Plaza on 25 May 2005. One lot in the sale was a pair of "Late 18th-century Italian School" oil paintings (1988x1453mm / 78-1/4x57-1/4 inches) after Rafaello Sanzio, "Justice" and "Forbearance." This was of interest to him beacuse he had purchased the 16th-century model for the "Forbearance" from a dealer who identified it as "Italian School, 1530-1550." Our correspondant thought that we would be particularly interested in the Lot Notes for this item: after citing the passage from Vasari we quoted above, the note concluded, "The two figures, uniquely executed in oil as opposed to fresco, are reproduced in the present pair" (see below). It would appear that as late as the late 18th-century the original oil painting based on our Justice (or at least an early copy of it) was still extant. Given Vasari's feelings about the superiority of Giulio's drawings to his paintings, he would probaby regard our drawing as a truer representation of Giulio's genius than the now-lost painting. Image size: 381x254mm. Price: SOLD.
Verso of Giolio Romano Justice with old attribution to Giulio Romano and annotation that this is after Raffaello (Raphael). There are several other annotations which, alas, I cannot understand.
Giulio Romano (Giulio Pippi; Rome 1499-1546 Mantua), after, Design for a frieze. Pen and black ink, heightened with gray wash on cream laid paper, later 16th century. Giulio Romano, Raphael's chief assistant, succeeded him after Raphael's death. After the Sack of of Rome, he completed Raphael's unfinished projects, including the Sala di Costantino in the Vatican, and went to Mantua, where he spent most of the the rest of his life working on projects for the Duke of Mantua, Federico II Gonzaga, most notably the Palazzo del Té, for which he was architect, designer of its program of paintings, and chief painter. As evidenced by the Sotheby's catalogue for the sale of the Ellesmere Collection Part II: Drawings by Giulio Romano and other Sixteenth-Century Masters Collected by Sir Thomas Lawrence London, 1972, many of whose pieces have a provenance that includes King Charles I of England, Giulio did a number of drawings for friezes using images similar to our drawing in the same format as our drawing. See plates 58, 65,72, 75, 76, 78, and 82 for friezes, putti, winged figures, and vegetation similar to those in our drawing. Image size: 165x318mm. Price: SOLD
Giulio Romano (Giulio Pippi; Rome 1499-1546 Mantua), after, Judith and her servant with the head of Holofernes. Pen and brown ink, heightened with white wash on cream laid paper. Later 16th century. Giulio Romano, Raphael's chief assistant, succeeded him after Raphael's death. After the Sack of of Rome, he completed Raphael's unfinished projects, including the Sala di Costantino in the Vatican, and went to Mantua, where he spent most of the the rest of his life working on projects for the Duke of Mantua, Federico II Gonzaga, most notably the Palazzo del Té, for which he was architect, designer of its program of paintings, and chief painter. Image size: 262x363mm. Price: SOLD.

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