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Home / Gallery Tour 1 / "The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters" / Gallery Tour 2 / Artists
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Francisco Goya y Lucientes (Spanish, 1746-1828): The Disasters of War 64-73

Goya’s Caprichos etchings (1799) and Disasters of War (c. 1808-1814), Durer's Ship of Fools woodcuts (1494), David Deuchar’s etchings (1786) after Hans Holbein’s Dance of Death, John Martin’s Paradise Lost mezzotints (1823-25), Georges Rouault’s Miserere mixed-media intaglios (1922-1928), and Marc Chagall's Dead Souls (etching and drypoint, 1923-1927)

Caprichos 43, 1-5 / Caprichos 6-10 / Caprichos 11-17 / Caprichos18-24 / Caprichos 25-30 / Caprichos 31-36
Caprichos 37-42 / Caprichos 43-50 / Caprichos 51-59 / Caprichos 60-67 / Caprichos 68-75 / Caprichos 76-80

Disasters of War 1-11 / Disasters 12-22 / Disasters 23-33 / Disasters 34-43
Disasters 44-53 / Disasters 54-63 / Disasters 64-73 / Disasters 74-81

Proverbios and others
Robert Hughes, whose The Shock of the New introduced America to modern art when it was aired on public television and whose American Visions, a survey of American Art up to the from the Spanish invaders of the southwest and the Pilgrims in New England to Abstract Expressionism and Pop Art, tells us in the opening pages of his Goya (2003) that in the midst of the Vietnam War, which tore America apart for many years, "there was nothing, absolutely nothing, that came near the achievement of Goya's Desastres de la guerra (Disasters of War), those heart-rending prints in which the artist bore witness to the almost unspeakable facts of death in the Spanish uprising against Napoleon, and, in doing so became the first modern visual reporter on warfare" (p. 7). Otto Dix's Krieg, the twentieth-century's witness to the horror of war, almost pales (although it is horrible enough to look at in itself) before Goya's depiction of the early nineteenth century's horrors of war, both civil and uncivil, between atrocities perpetrated on Spaniards by Spaniards and atrocities perpetrated by the French upon the Spanish (and vice-versa). Hughes suggests (p. 273) that "very broadly, the images fall into three groups. Forty-six plates, 2 through 47, describe incidents of guerilla war, the Spanish pueblo against Napoleon's soldiers. Eighteen more, 48 through 65, are concerned with the effects of the great famine that devastated Madrid between 1811 and 1812—a famine that Goya, living in the city, experienced too, and whose effects he saw at first hand. And then there are the Caprichos enfáticos, or 'emphatic caprices'—a run of fifteen allegorical and satirical images rather than journalistic reportage, that attack what one might call the disasters of peace—evoking the shattered hopes of the Spanish liberals and illustrados in the wake of Napoleon's defeat after Fernando VII returned to the throne, abolished the 1512 Constitution, and set in train an iron policy of repression, censorship, inquisitorial tyranny, and royal absolutism."

Select Bibliography: Rogelio Buendia Goya (NY: Arch Cape Press, 1990), Jean-François Chabrun, Goya: His Life and Work (NY: Tudor, 1965), Colta Ives & Susan Alyson Stein Goya in the Metropolitan Museum of Art (NY: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1995), Raymond Keaveney, Master European Paintings from the National Gallery of Ireland from Mantegna to Goya (Dublin: National Gallery of Ireland, 1992), Fred Licht, Goya and the Origins of the Modern Temper in Art (NY: Harper & Row, 1983), Park West Gallery, Goya: Sleeping Giant (Southfield MI: Park West Gallery, n.d.), Alfonso E. Perez Sanchez, and Eleanor Sayre, Goya and the Spirit of the Enlightenment (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1989), Maurice Raynal, The Great Centuries of Painting: The Nineteenth Century. New Sources of Emotion from Goya to Gauguin (Geneva: Skira, 1951), Daniel Catton Rich, ed. The Art of Goya: Paintings, Drawings, and Prints (Chicago: The Art Institute, 1941), Richard Schickel, The World of Goya 1746-1828 (NY: Time-Life Books, 1968), The Royal Academy of Arts in London, Goya and his times (London: Royal Academy, 1963), Janis A. Tomlinson, Goya in the Twilight of the Enlightenment (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992), Juliet Wilson-Bareau & Manuela B. Mena Marqués, Goya: Truth and Fantasy. The Small Paintings (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994).

Works on Prints: The standard catalogue raisonnés of Goya's prints by Loys Delteil and Tomás Harris are both out of print but should be available in major libraries and in museums; there is a reprint of the Harris published by Alan Wofsy in 1983 which we have used throughout. We follow Harris in our descriptions of the editions, for which see volume 2, pages 172-176, and the individual prints (pp. 177-304). Los Desastres de la Guerra was not published during Goya's lifetime because he would have been called before the Inquisition, from whence few returned. Harris briefly discusses the 472 trial proofs printed before Goya's death and then summarizes the quality of the various editions. Generally, the first edition published in 1863 for the Real (i.e., Royal) Academia in an edition of 500, is by far the best, though the first 300 or so are of much higher quality than the remaining pieces, where "the tone of the ink is darkened to compensate for the wear of the aquatint" (pp. 173-74). The second edition was published by the Real Academía (as were all later ones) in 1892 in an edition of 100; Harris says that the plates were probably steel-faced before the making of this edition (p. 174). The third edition was published in 1903 in an edition of 100, which Harris describes as "very inferior to the second). The fourth edition was published by the Real Academía in 1906 in an edition of 275. Harris describes it as "excellently printed on very suitable papers" and says that "the impressions are generally a little inferior to those of the second edition but are better than those of the third." The fifth edition, which Harris describes as "inferior to all previous ones" was published by the Real Academía om 1923 in an edition of 100. Harris attributes the problems to over-inking and the very hard quality of the paper. The sixth edition was made in 1930 the for the Real Academía; Harris describes it as "little inferior to the second edition and superior to the third. The seventh and last edition was made in 1937 the for the the Ministerio de Instrucción Publica in 1937, during the Spanish Civil War. Five sets were printed on Old Japan paper, of which three were dedicated to Stalin, Eleanor Roosevelt, and the Republican President, Azana, leaving two sets unaccounted for. 15 sets on Imperial Japan paper were published in a parchment portfolio, and 130 sets on Arches paper were were also published. Harris says, "This edition is remarkably good and the impressions are the best taken from the plates after the second edition. We acquired a complete set of the fourth edition a number of years ago, and most of our impressions are from that edition. We have also had several impressions from the first edition (one of which is still available). We find it close in quality to the impression of the same piece from the fourth edition. We also have one impression from the third edition, which is seriously deficient when compared to the same work from the 4th edition. In 1988 were were fortunate to see an exhibition of all of Goya's prints in the Guttenberg Museum in Mainz (an outing for the faculty of the English Department at the University of Giessen, where I taught for the summer session. They displayed impressions of Los Desastres from the fourth edition. We were also lucky enough to see an exhibition of Los Desastres at the University of Iowa Art Museum several year later (I think; it might have been at Iowa State University). It was also composed of impressions from the fourth edition. These two exhibition, of course, made us feel quite pleased when we acquired our own complete set of Los Desastres in the fourth edition.

The most convenient reproduction of The Disasters of War is the edition published by Dover Books in 1967 with a very short introduction by Philip Hofer of the Department of Graphic Arts at the Harvard University Library. Also likely to be available inexpensively in used condition: Aldous Huxley, ed., The Complete Etchings of Goya (NY: Crown Publishers, 1943; Huxley incorporates Goya's own comments on the Caprichos from a manuscript now in the Prado in Madrid, many of which I have incorporated in my descriptions), ). See Nigel Glendinning, Goya: La Década de los Caprichos. Retratos 1792-1804 (Madrid: Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Francisco, 1992), Verna Posever Curtis and Selma Reuben Holo, La Tauromaquia: Goya, Picasso and the Bullfight (Milwaukee: Milwaukee Art Museum, 1986), Anthony H. Hull, Goya: Man Among Kings (NY: Hamilton Books, 1987), R. Stanley Johnson, Goya: Los Caprichos (Chicago: R.S. Johnson, 1992; Johnson usefully cites remarks of an early commentator on Goya's Caprichos from a manuscript preserved in the Biblioteca Nacional, Madrid, many of which I have incorporated in my descriptions), Elie Lambert, Goya: L'oeuvre grave (Paris: Alpina, n.d.), Roger Malbert, ed. Disasters of War: Callot, Goya, Dix (London: Cornerhouse Publications, 1998), Alfonso E. Pérez Sánchez, & Julián Gállego, Goya: The Complete Etchings and Engravings (Munich: Prestel-Verlag, 1995), Nicholas Stogdon, Francisco de Goya, Los Caprichos: Twenty Proofs and a New Census (London: N.G. Stogdon, Inc, 1988), Janis A. Tomlinson, Graphic Evolutions: The Print Series of Francesco Goya (NY: Columbia University Press, 1989).
Carretadas al cementerio / Cartloads to the cemetery (Disasters, plate 64, Harris 184, Delteil 183). Original etching, aquatint, burin and burnisher, c. 1808-1814. Harris notes that the "plate is in good condition" for the first edition and "fair to poor" in the the 2nd to 7th editions: "Fine-grain aquatint, in one very weak biting. Hardly contrasts with the high-light on the dead woman. Drypoint over the background and the sleeve of the man in the cart prints with burr in the earliest impressions. Etching prints with a blurred effect where it was burnished." Our impressions seeems to come from the later part of the first edition after the burr has worn off. After the first edition, the plates were probably steel-faced and consequently do not degrade as quickly as they otherwise might. Our impression is from the 1st edition (1863) published from Goya's original plates in the Royal Academy in San Fernando, Spain. Once again, we see a famine scene with its fatal consequences: dead bodies abound and must be removed lest they breed a plague. No longer treated without respect, they are just things that need to be removed before they breed disease. Illustrated in Hughes, p. 298. Image size: 155x205mm. Price: $6000.

The paper is actually much less white than in the 4th edition below and slightly yellowish. We have not been able to reproduce it accurately. The gray of the ink, however, is just about correct.
Carreetadas al cementerio / Cartloads to the cementary (Disasters, plate 64, Harris 184, Delteil 183). Original etching, aquatint, burin and burnisher, c. 1808-1814. Harris notes that the "plate is in good condition" for the first edition and "fair to poor" in the the 2nd to 7th editions: "Aquatint almost disappears except in the left foreground where the grain is just visible to the end. THe defects in the plate are considerably accentuated. Etching deteriorates and the over-bitten areas print with spotty effects. The burnishing marks on the highlights disappear. Burin work on the tow men holding the woman, on the heads in the cart and on the ground becomes more apparent." After the first edition, the plates were probably steel-faced and consequently do not degrade as quickly as they otherwise might. Our impression is from the 4th edition (1906) published from Goya's original plates in the Royal Academy in San Fernando, Spain. Once again, we see a famine scene with its fatal consequences: dead bodies abound and must be removed lest they breed a plague. No longer treated without respect, they are just things that need to be removed before they breed disease. Illustrated in Hughes, p. 298. Image size: 155x205mm. Price: $3500.
Qué alboroto es este? / What is this hubbub (Disasters, pl. 65, Harris 185, Delteil 184). Original etching, burnished aquatint and/or lavis, burin, and burnisher, c. 1808-1814. Harris notes that the "plate is in good condition" for the first edition and "fair to poor" in the the 2nd to 7th editions: After the first edition "Aquatint and/or avis weakens, particularly in the light areas in the sky and the foreground, and the contrast between the fairly strong lavis and the lighter tone is almost lost. The burnishing marks disappear and the defects in the sky to the right weaken gradually. Etching prints weakly where it was burnished. Burin work stands out strongly on the figure with bowed head, nearest the dog." After the first edition, the plates were probably steel-faced and consequently do not degrade as quickly as they otherwise might. Our impression is from the 4th edition (1906) published from Goya's original plates in the Royal Academy in San Fernando, Spain. There is clearly a very strong wind blowing dust across the scene. The seated soldier whose face is out of the wind appears amused, but the coulpe at center (the woman in white and the one next to her cover their faces and/or hold on to their hats). Behind them, a crowd of people, mostly women, all bent over, are also traveling in the same direction. Only the dogs at right are resisting this motion. The etched lines in the mid-ground and the darker lines of the ground on which the women stand are quite sharp as are the engraved lines of the rock upon which the soldier is writing. So long as one does not have to deal with the dust that the rude wind blows in their faces, the scene might pass for a comic one, a rather drastic changes from the scenes of death and starvation with which we have been preoccupied since the beginning of the famine series. Image size: 175x220mm. Price: $2500.
Extrana devocion! / Stange devotion! (Disasters, pl. 66, Harris 186, Delteil 185). Original etching, burnished aquatint, drypoint, burin, and burnisher, c. 1808-1814. Harris notes that in the first edition, the plate is in good condition: "Aquatint or lavis appwears to be in two bitings—a pale tone covers the foreground and figures and was reinforced on parts of the figures by a stronger tone twhich prints with dark spots. There are strong burninshing marks in the sky." Our impression is from the 1st edition (1863) published from Goya's original plates in the workshop of Laurenciano Potenciano for the Royal Academy in San Fernando, Spain. Goya here offers us another scene showing the effects of the famine: on the back of a donkey, a corpse lies in a glass-sided coffin. To the left and in front, rows of people sit in silent devotion. If death is all that is left, perhaps Death needs to be worshiped instead of God. Illustrated in Hughes. Image size: 175x220mm. Price: $6000.
Extrana devocion! / Stange devotion! (Disasters, pl. 66, Harris 186, Delteil 185). Original etching, burnished aquatint, drypoint, burin, and burnisher, c. 1808-1814. Harris notes that in the first edition, the plate is in good condition; in the second through seventh editions, the plate is in fair condition:"The tone weakens gradually. The burnishing marks disappear and the defects in the plate stand out more strongly at first but later weaken." He also notes that the "etching prints well throughout."After the first edition, the plates were probably steel-faced and consequently do not degrade as quickly as they otherwise might. Our impression is from the 4th edition (1906) published from Goya's original plates in the Royal Academy in San Fernando, Spain. Goya here offers us another scene showing the effects of the famine: on the back of a donkey, a corpse lies in a glass-sided coffin. To the left and in front, rows of people sit in silent devotion. If death is all that is left, perhaps Death needs to be worshiped instead of God. Illustrated in Hughes. Image size: 175x220mm. Price: $3000.
Esta no lo es menos / This is not less so (Disasters, pl. 67, Harris 187, Delteil 186). Original etching, burnished aquatint, drypoint, burin, and burnisher, c. 1808-1814. Harris notes that the "plate is in good condition" for the first edition and "in fair condition" thereafter: aquatint and false biting weaken gradually. Etching prints very well throughout and the burnishing marks disappear." After the first edition, the plates were probably steel-faced and consequently do not degrade as quickly as they otherwise might. Our impression is from the 4th edition (1906) published from Goya's original plates in the Royal Academy in San Fernando, Spain. A procession headed by a bell-ringer and two elderly men bent over with the weight of a scupture of a nun with a rosary whose wooden legs and platform are visible trudges through the street. Behnind them a train of penitents follow. Towards the end of the procession, another figure is bent over by the heavy weight of some kind of votive object. This, Goya's sequencing says, is another kind of strange devotion: the people are willing to bow before the dead and before idols, but not to do anything to help living images of Christ who are starving to death. Illustrated in Hughes, p. 300.. Image size: 175x220mm. Price: $2500.
Que locura! / What madness! (pl. 68, Harris 188, Delteil 187). Original etching, lavis, and burin, c. 1808-1814. Harris describes the plate in the first edition as "in good condition" and in the 2nd to 7th editions, "the plate is in fair condition": "the lavis weakens considerably. The very pale tone wears out and prints as a slight stain. The stronger tone loses its contrast and almost wears out where it was more lightly bitten on the heap of masks to the left. Etching prints very well throughout." Our impression, from the 4th edition (1906) published from Goya's original plates in the Royal Academy in San Fernando, Spain, appears to have been printed before the plate had in fact deteriorated to the point that Harris describes: There is still very strong contrast between the darkest and the lightest tones; the masks come through very strongly as does the chamber pot! In the background, we can see a number of very dark shadowy figures, their heads bent over, perhaps in prayer, and at the right, an old woman praying on her knees, her hands clasped together, by a jumbled mass of sculptures of martyrs and various pieces of church furniture. The central figure, a very large man with thick legs and heavy sandals on his large feet, is squatting as if in the process of producing a bowel movement not in the chamber pot within easy reach but as an offering before the jumble of religious items, people in prayer, and discarded carnival masks. A strong and powerful work that witnesses to Goya's fearlessness of the Inquisition and despair for his country and his fellow Spaniards. A very powerful statement of rejection of the madness the Inquisition had perpetrated on his country. The message here seems to be, "This has got to stop!" Image size: 160x220mm. Price: $3000.
Nada. Ello Dira. / Nothing. The event will tell ( pl. 69, Harris 189, Delteil 188). Original etching, burnished aquatint, lavis, drypoint, and burin, c. 1808-1814. Harris describes the first edition as "good" and notes that in the 2nd to 7th editions, the plate is in fair condition: "Aquatint weakens. The highlights retain much of their cntrast. Lavis disappears entirely and as a result the figures to the left appear less confused. Burin work stands out strongly in the figures fo the left and on the outline of the corpse. The etching which was overbitten in some areas and burnished and altered in others is rather uneven." Our impression is from the 4th edition (1906) published from Goya's original plates in the Royal Academy in San Fernando, Spain, which Tomas Harris categorizes as excellently printed on very suitable papers." A corpse lies in the ground, one hand holding a stylus and a sheet of paoper on which is written the word "Nada" or "Nothing." Behind it on the right side, a heap of skulls identifies the scene as the interior of a charnel house, where the bones are stored until they can rise at the Last Judgment. Whether there is to be a Last Judgment, however, is exactly what is called into question here. Behind on the left side, someone seems to be crawling out of a large oven. In front of the oven is the skull of a large animal. This work is one of the most famous in the history of western European art. The doctrine of the Resurrection is one of the foundational beliefs of Christianity, yet here the only promise is "nothing." This work is still reverberating on our art and literature today. In one of Thomas Pyncheon's masterpieces, The Crying of Lot 49, the heroine's husband, Mucho Maas, explains to his wife his great discovery: "The bad dream that I used to have all the time, about the car lot, remember that? I could never even tell you about it. But I can now. It doesn't even bother me any more. It was only that sign in the lot, that's what scared me. In the dream I would be going about a normal day's business and suddenly, with no warning, there'd be the sign. We were a member of the National Automobile Dealers' Association. N.A.D.A. Just this creaking metal sign that said nada, nada, aginst the blue sky. I used to wake up hollering" (p. 107). As we approach the end of the novel, Oedipa realizes that she has stumbled into a universe in which there are only four interpretations of life as we kniow it, none of them tolerable, all of them totally lacking in any of the humanist values that our civilation is constructed upon. "She didn't like any of them, but hoped she was mentally ill; that that's all it was. That night she sat for hours, too numb even to drink, teaching herself to breathe in a vacuum. For this, oh God, was the void. There was nobody who could help her. Nobody in the world. They were all on something, mad, possible enemies, dead" (p. 128). Goya's image is illustrated in Hughes (p. 302), Licht (p. 155), and Rich (p. 60). Image size: 155x200mm. Price: $6000.
No saben el camino / They do not know the way (Disasters of War, plate 70, Harris 190, Delteil 189). Original etching, drypoint, burin, and burnisher, c. 1808-1814. Harris describes the plate as in good to fair condition through all of the editions: "drypoint on the ground to the left in the middle distance prints with some burr in the earliest editions [but not in ours]. Burin work stands out strongly on the most distant figures beyond the hillock and, later in the right foreground. etching prints fairly well throughout. After the first edition, the plates were probably steel-faced and consequently do not degrade as quickly as they otherwise might. Our impressions is a strong one: the etching and burin marks are quite sharp. Our impression is from the 4th edition (1906) published from Goya's original plates in the Royal Academy in San Fernando, Spain. A chain of men, roped together, wend their way through a giant S-curve. Several of them—mostly the ones whom the light is illuminating—appear to be smiling; others appear to be grieving as they walk in shadow. Image size: 175x220mm. Price: $3000.
Contra el bien general / Against the common good (Disasters of War, plate 71, Harris 191, Delteil 190). Original etching and burnisher, c. 1808-1814. Harris describes the plate as in good condition through all of the editions: "The burnished etching prints with a blurred effect in the earliest impressions, but this soon disappears almost entirely and the etching prints very well throughout. . . . Three black spots in the sky to the left weaken gradually and are barely noticeable buy the fourth editions" After the first edition, the plates were probably steel-faced and consequently do not degrade as quickly as they might otherwise have done. Our impression is from the 4th edition (1906) published from Goya's original plates in the Royal Academy in San Fernando, Spain. More specifically, in our fourth edition impression, the etching prints quite clearly and the three black spots in the sky to the left are still quite visible, suggesting that our impression may very well be from a very early imprint of the 4th edition. The central focus is a monster with batwings for ears and with very sharp talons on his four fingers of each hand and the four toes of each foot. He is scribbling into a ledger very intently, and our consciousness of his demonic ears and claws makes us fairly sure that whatever he is writing will not be to the good of the women wailing at right behind him or the men in shadow behind him at left. Hughes (p. 301) interprets this as explicitly political: "a bald and heavy-lidded creature—a sort of recording demon, with a quill, the talons of a bird of prey, and vampire wings sprouting from his head—minutely inscribes laws and lists in a big book open on his lap, a clear allusion to the lists of names and the repressive laws brought in by Fernando's return." Image size: 155x205mm. Price: $3000.
Las resultas / The consequences (Disasters of War, plate 72, Harris 192, Delteil 191). Original etching, c. 1808-1814. According to Harris, the plate is in "good condition" during the first to seventh editions and "the etching prints very well throughout. After the first edition, the plates were probably steel-faced and consequently do not degrade as quickly as they otherwise might. Our impression is from the 4th edition (1906) published from Goya's original plates in the Royal Academy in San Fernando, Spain. The subject of this etching in general seems clear: the central figure, dressed in his night clothes, is dreaming and the owls, customarily symbols not of wisdom but of evil, are flocking to get in line to suck out the essence of his fantasies, acting like the Dementors whom we first meet in Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban: "Dementors are among the foulest creatures that walk this earth. They infest the darkest, filthiest places, they glory in decay and despair, they drain peace, hope, and happiness out of the air around them . . . . Get too near a Dementor and every good feeling, every happy memory will be sucked out of you. If it can, the Dementor will feed on you long enough to reduce you to something like itself . . . soulless and evil. You will be left with nothing but the worst experiences of your life." Looking at the owl whose melting face is attached to the chest of the dreamer, one might wonder whether Goya might have inspired J. K. Rowling to any extent. Illustrated in Hughes, p. 301. Image size: 175x220mm. Price: $2500.
Gatesca pantomima / Feline pantomime (Disasters of War, plate 73, Harris 193, Delteil 192). c. 1808-1814. Harris notes that the "plate is in good condition" for all editions: the "etching prints very well throughout. The defects and false biting are less noticeable in the later, clean-wiped impressions. A scratch occurs near the top of the plate, above the bird, in the second edition." All-in-all, ours is a strong and sharp impression. After the first edition, the plates were probably steel-faced and consequently do not degrade as quickly as they otherwise might. Our impression is from the 4th edition (1906) published from Goya's original plates in the Royal Academy in San Fernando, Spain. A cat, sitting atop a platform to accept the worship of those who are praying to it (like the cowled figure to the right) or adoring it (like the large crowd center rear), turns to look at a large owl flying toward it. Image size: 175x220mm. Price: $3000.

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