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Last updated: 1/25/2017
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Old Master Drawings: Jean-François de Neufforge (Belgium 1714-1791 France): Women

de Neufforge: Women / de Neufforge: Men / de Neufforge: Religious

North Italian Illuminated Manuscript / Italian Old Master Drawings: An Overview / Italian School, 16th-Century Drawings
Michelangelo Buonarotti (After) / Raphael / Giulio Romano / Perino del Vaga / Marcantonio Raimondi / Parmigianino
Titian (after) / Andrea Schiavone / Tintoretto / Veronese / Taddeo Zuccaro / Federico Zuccaro / Alessandro Casolani
Jacopo Palma il Giovane / Cherubino Alberti / Luca Cambiaso / Annibale Carracci / Ludovico Carracci

Italian School, 17th-Century Drawings / Bolognese School / Giovanni Baglione / Matteo Rosselli / Ercole Bazzicaluva
Baldassare Franceschini called Il Volterrano / Pier Francesco Mazzuccelli, il Morazzone / Odoardo Fialetti / Simone Cantarini
Domenichino / Francesco Albani / Giovanni Lanfranco / Guercino / Pier Francesco Mola / Antonio Busca

Italian School Printmakers, 15th-17th Centuries: Venetian School, c. 1497 / Raphael School / Giovanni Jacopo Caraglio
Marcantonio Raimondi / The Master of the Die / Anea Vico / Agostino Veneziano / Nicholas Beatrizet
Michelangelo Buonarotti (After) / Giulio Bonasone / Giovanni Battista Franco /Girolamo Fagiuoli / Cherubino Alberti
Titian (after) / Tintoretto (after) / Parmigianino / Giorgio Ghisi / Diana Scultori / Annibale Carracci / Ludovico Carracci
Agostino Carracci / Simone Cantarini / Elisabetta Sirani / Gerolamo Scarsello

Netherlandish School, 15th-17th-Century Drawings / Flemish School, 17th-Century
Bernaert van Orley / Lucas van Leyden / Maarten de Vos / Jan Baptiste de Wael / Abraham Bloemaert
Peter Paul Rubens / Philipp Sadeler / Nicolaes Maes / Rembrandt School

Netherlandish Printmakers 16th-17th Centuries: Lucas van Leyden, Maarten van Heemskerck, Cornelis Cort
Philips Galle, Abraham de Bruyn, Hans (Jan) Collaert, Adriaen Collaert, Karel de Mallery, Theodore Galle, Hendrik Goltzius
Julius Goltzius, Jacob Matham, Jan Sanraedam, Maarten de Vos, Jan Sadeler, Aegidius Sadeler, Raphael Sadeler
Crispin de Passe, Magdalena de Passe, Wierix Brothers, Rembrandt, Rembrandt School, Jan Lievens, Jan Joris van Vliet,
Ferdinand Bol, Govert Flinck
German Drawings: Hans Sebald Beham / Virgil Solis / Hans von Aachen / Joseph Heinrich Roos
German 16th century printmakers: Heinrich Aldegrever, Jost Amman, Hans Sebald Beham, Hans Brosamer, Hans Burgkmair,
Lucas Cranach, Albrecht Durer, Albrecht Durer (After), Hans Holbein (After), Hopfer Brothers, Georg Pencz, Hans Schäufelein,
Virgil Solis, Wolfgang Stuber

French Drawings: Charles de La Fosse / Etienne Parrocel / François Boucher / Jean-François de Neufforge / Mouricault
French printmakers: Etienne Delaune / Rene Boyvin /Thomas de Leu / Jean Cousin the Younger / Jacques Callot
Abraham Bosse / Sebastien Bourdon / Claude Gelle "le Lorraine" / Jean LePautre
Claudine Bouzonnet Stella / Antonette Bouzonnet Stella / Gabriel Perelle

19th-Century Drawings / 20th-Century Drawings
Several years ago we acquired, with the assistance of a rare book dealer in Brussels, a portfolio of drawings on laid paper, many of which are clearly from the same hand and some of which are signed I:D:N (one is signed I:N:D, some are not signed at all, and one is signed "de Neufforge" with a flourish.) According to both Benezit and Thieme-Becker's biographical encyclopedias of artists, Jean-François de Neufforge was born in Comblain-au-Point, Belgium in 1714 and died in Paris on 19 December 1791. According to an article by Claire Baines in the Grove Dictionary of Art (2000), 22: 925, Neufforge, an architect and sculptor, arrived in Paris around 1738 and studied engraving with Pierre Edmé Babel and architecture with Jacques-François Blondel. Although he worked primarily in the Rococo style, he was also interested in classical sculpture and was aware of his contemporaries, particularly François Boucher (1703-1770). Neufforge's great work was the Recueil élémentaire d'architecture containing roughly 900 architectural engravings, nearly all of which he both designed and engraved (published in several parts in 1757-68 and 1772-1780). According to Prof. Baines, "It is a traditional architect's pattern-book but is of unprecedented scope, containing virtually every type of civic and domestic building then known, including such structures as prisons and lighthouses that had only recently been considered worthy of an architect's attention. In addition, it covers such topics as interior decoration, gardens and methods of construction. In his designs for domestic architecture, Neufforge included models to suit every level of patron, from the most modest to the most aristocratic. The designs draw both on antiquity and the High Renaissance, and the Recueil was extensively used as a source-book throughout the late 18th century." Prof. Baines also suggests that his engraving style was formed while engraving plates for Julien-David Le Roy's book, Les Ruines des ples beaux monuments de la Grèce (Paris, 1758), a work to which he may have been drawn by his interest in classical figures or from which he have become interested in classical figures (like Heraclitos, the weeping philosopher, whose imagined portrat he drew at least twice, once in black chalk and once in red, bordered as if for an engraving. Also part of the exhibition are a several drawings that show classical (Cicero) and contemporary orators which we have hung in couterpoint to a drawing of a Roman king and St. Peter, another famed orator (at least in the opening of the Acts of the Apostles). Also in the show are two groups of drawings, one of fashionable aristocratic women with pearls in their hair or around their necks paired with a coy nude and a woman in a mob cap and the other of which is juxtaposes two drawings of a baby (we assume the Christ child) and one of what we think is a drawing similar to Durer's drawing of the figure who appears in his painting of the 12-year old Jesus teaching the elders in the temple along with two drawings of a modestly dressed young woman who would not be out of place in a traditional depiction of the Virgin Mary, either solo or in a group scene.

Our drawings are on thick laid paper with several different watermarks (though some have no watermark at all). Some treat the same subject (often with one signed and one or two others unsigned); some are surrounded by framing lines as if they were presentation drawings or intended for an album, some are not; some seem to be designed as engravings and have a space reserved for a descriptive printed text, some do not. Some are clearly drawn from life; others seem as though they might have been taken from classical or Renaissance sculptures. Some of the drawings have a marvelous liveliness about them, some are more weighty; all are very well done and in very good condition with the exception of the occasional handling crease or stain, mostly invisible when matted. None show signs of having been matted in the past: they seem to have been kept in a leather case and show no signs of either light or mat stain.

The drawings represent another kind of activity. Stylistically, many of the drawings—particularly those of women—show the influence of Boucher and the color crayon noir manner engraving style used to reproduce his works. These engravings, very similar to Woman with turban or Woman with pearl necklace looking down (both on I:D:N: Women) are currently selling for prices up to $10,000 at auction. It is quite possible that some of our drawings were executed as models for such prints.
Woman with pearl hairdress. Red chalk on laid paper watermarked "EVO." Image size: 360x265mm. Price: SOLD.
Woman with pearls in her hair looking to the left. Red chalk on laid paper watermarked "WM: VANDER LEY" (Churchill 433: after 1724). Image size: 415x320mm. Price: $3500.
Jean François de Neufforge (Comblain-au-Point, 1714-1791 Paris), Woman with pearl necklace looking down. Red and black chalk on laid paper. This piece shows de Neufforge's use of the trois-crayons technique, the combination of red, black, and white chalks that Rubens himself used for many of his studies. Image size: 450x305mm. Price: $4000.
Woman with pearl necklace looking down. Red chalk on laid paper. Watermark: Coat of arms. Image size: 436x300mm. Price: $3500.
Woman with French braid looking to the left. Red chalk on laid paper. Signed "I:D:N " lower right. Watermark: Elephant with elaborate R (Churchill 189, c. 1786). Image size: 501x342mm. Price: SOLD

For a brief discussion of the tête d'expression in 18th-century French art, see Carter E. Foster, with Sylvain Bellenger and Patrick Shaw Cable, French Master Drawings from the Collection of Muriel Butkin (Cleveland: Cleveland Museum of Art, 2001), pp. 32-33 with reference to Jean-Hughes Taravel's, Head of a Female Figure in Profile, Turned to the Right (c. 1673-70?). While the genre was common during the 18th century, it "became especially important around . . . 1759, the year that a special prize for drawing facial expression from a posed model was established by the comte de Caylus.
Woman with French braid looking to the left II. Red chalk on laid paper. Watermark: Coat of arms. Image size: 450x305mm. Price: $3250.
Woman looking to right. Red chalk on laid paper watermarked NP (manufactured after 1717). Vertical crease through image. Image size: 465x375mm. Price: $2000.
Woman looking over her left shoulder. Red chalk on laid paper watermarked with a fleur-de-lis manufactured by C & I Honig, after 1683. Image size: 290x215mm. Price: SOLD.
Woman in a mob cap. Red chalk on laid paper watermarked with an elephant cf. Churchill 189 (1776). Signed I:D:N lower right. Image size: 325x320mm. Price: $3000.

The drawing is actually a rectangle. Sorry for the distortion!
French School (second half of the 18th century), Woman with bonnet. Black & red chalk on laid paper watermarked with a fleur-de-lis. Possibly by Jean-Francois de Neufforge, however the work has a very different feel, the shading is different, and the clothing looks later than those associated with de Neufforge. Possibly drawn as a model for an engraver. Image size: 278x215mm. Price: $1500.

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